Genetic Fact: People born in Africa are 100% Pure Human, the rest has some Neanderthal blood

“New reports from Harvard researcher Dr. David Reich: ALL non-African people share Neanderthal DNA. The implications of these findings are ENORMOUS! This means Darwinian evolutionary theory ( ‘Origin of Species’) DOES NOT apply to black people. Africans are the ONLY homogeneous human species. Europeans and Asians, on the other hand, evolved from inter-breeding with Neanderthals that left Africa 600’000 years ago. Point being, indigenous Africans are the ONLY pure human race.  Euro-Asian and Caucasian people LITERALLY came from cavemen.”

In two new studies, genetic researchers have shown that about 20 percent of the Neanderthal genome survives in modern humans of non-African ancestry and identified exactly which areas of the human genome retain segments of Neanderthal DNA.

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About 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens migrating out of Africa began encountering Neanderthals, a lineage that had diverged from modern humans hundreds of thousands of years before. Despite their differences, Homo sapiens and Neanderthals mingled, and over time, produced children with genes from both lineages.

Today, the biological remnants of that collision between two distinct populations remain alive in the genomes of Europeans and East Asians.

The first study, reported in the journal Nature, examines how Neanderthals influence the genetic composition of modern humans.

Study’s senior author Dr David Reich of Harvard Medical School said: “the goal was to understand the biological impact of the gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans.”
“We reasoned that when these two groups met and mixed, some new traits would have been selected for and remained in the human genome, while some incompatibilities would have been selected against and removed.”

“As methods to analyze ancient DNA continue to improve, we are able to get at answers to ever more fine-grained questions about our evolutionary history,” added Dr Elizabeth Tran of the National Science Foundation, who was not involved in the studies.

Dr Reich and his colleagues analyzed genetic variants in 846 people of non-African heritage, 176 people from sub-Saharan Africa, and a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal.

They showed that nine previously identified human genetic variants known to be associated with specific traits likely came from Neanderthals. These variants affect lupus, biliary cirrhosis, Crohn’s disease, optic-disk size and type 2 diabetes and also some behaviors, such as the ability to stop smoking. The team expects that more variants will be found to have Neanderthal origins.

The team also measured how Neanderthal DNA present in human genomes today affects keratin production and disease risk.

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“Neanderthal ancestry is increased in genes affecting keratin filaments. This fibrous protein lends toughness to skin, hair and nails and can be beneficial in colder environments by providing thicker insulation. It’s tempting to think that Neanderthals were already adapted to the non-African environment and provided this genetic benefit to humans,” Dr Reich said.
The scientists also found that some areas of the modern non-African human genome were rich in Neanderthal DNA, which may have been helpful for human survival, while other areas were more like ‘deserts’ with far less Neanderthal ancestry than average.

“The barren areas were the most exciting finding. It suggests the introduction of some of these Neanderthal mutations was harmful to the ancestors of non-Africans and that these mutations were later removed by the action of natural selection,” said lead author Dr Sriram Sankararaman from the Harvard and MIT’s Broad Institute and Harvard Medical School.
The team showed that the areas with reduced Neanderthal ancestry tend to cluster in two parts of our genomes: genes that are most active in the male germline and genes on the X chromosome. This pattern has been linked in many animals to a phenomenon known as hybrid infertility, where the offspring of a male from one subspecies and a female from another have low or no fertility.

Dr Reich explained: “this suggests that when ancient humans met and mixed with Neanderthals, the two species were at the edge of biological incompatibility.”

“Present-day human populations, which can be separated from one another by as much as 100,000 years, are fully compatible with no evidence of increased male infertility. In contrast, ancient human and Neanderthal populations apparently faced interbreeding challenges after 500,000 years of evolutionary separation.”

The second study, published online in the journal Science, tests an innovative, fossil-free method for sequencing archaic DNA.

Co-authors Dr Benjamin Vernot and Dr Joshua Akey, both from the University of Washington, analyzed whole-genome sequencing data from 379 Europeans and 286 East Asians to identify Neanderthal lineages that persist in the modern DNA.

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“We found evidence that Neanderthal skin genes made Europeans and East Asians more evolutionarily fit, and that other Neanderthal genes were apparently incompatible with the rest of the modern human genome, and thus did not survive to present day human populations,” Dr Vernot said.

The scientists observed that certain chromosomes arms in humans are tellingly devoid of Neanderthal DNA sequences, perhaps due to mismatches between the two species along certain portions of their genetic materials. For example, they noticed a strong depletion of Neanderthal DNA in a region of human genomes that contains a gene for a factor thought to play an important role in human speech and language.

The results suggest that significant amounts of population-level DNA sequences might be obtained from extinct groups even in the absence of fossilized remains, because these ancient sequences might have been inherited by other individuals from whom scientists can gather genomic data. Therein lies the potential to discover and characterize previously unknown archaic humans that bred with early humans.

“The fossil free method of sequencing archaic genomes not only holds promise in revealing aspects of the evolution of now-extinct archaic humans and their characteristic population genetics, it also might provide insights into how interbreeding influenced current patterns of human diversity,” Dr Vernot said.

“In the future, I think scientists will be able to identify DNA from other extinct hominin, just by analyzing modern human genomes.”

“From our end, this was an entirely computational project. I think it’s really interesting how careful application of the correct statistical and computational tools can uncover important aspects of health, biology and human history. Of course, you need good data, too.”

  • Sriram Sankararaman et al. The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans. Nature, published online January 29, 2014; doi: 10.1038/nature12961
  • Benjamin Vernot and Joshua M. Akey. Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes. Science, published online January 29, 2014; doi: 10.1126/science.1245938

Source: Rastafari. TV||
This article originally appeared on Rastafari.tv. Read the original article here.

19 Comments

  1. Some of us have known this for years! We used to call them cavemen in Junior High School. This explains their love of aggression and violence!

  2. Sorry to break the news: Neanderthals were human also. A different subspecies of full human, but HUMAN. Saying that people with Neanderthal or Denisovan heritage aren’t fully HUMAN, is like saying that a Labradoodle isn’t fully DOG because it isn’t pure POODLE.

    Homo sapiens sapiens arose in Africa, while Homo sapiens neanderthalensis arose in Europe or Central Asia from an earlier human race (whose roots, ultimately, were African). Both subspecies are 100% human. Yes, modern humans all over the world are predominantly of sapiens-sapiens descent (with other branches of humanity Neanderthal, Denisovan, and possible a third) admixed in some proportion. The only exception to moderate admixture with other HUMAN lineages, are modern humans from subsaharan Africa. Only THESE people, are purely of the African lineage. Wunderbar. Congratulations! Racial purity!

    Not ALL Africans are “pure”, of course, just the ones from SOUTH of the Sahara. By contrast, the Africans whose lands border the Mediterranean … Those guys are just as polluted with Neanderthal DNA as any Englishman, of course. The Phoenicians, the Egyptians, the Berbers…

    Perhaps someone is trying to use word games to gain an advantage of some kind? Please do share with us, what it is that you’re trying to imply or infer? Innate superiority, perhaps? Wouldn’t it be easier to simply point to the great superiority of Subsaharan African culture and technology? It’s amazing what these “FULLY HUMAN” humans did with a 100,000 YEAR head start, having been living there in Africa, “fully human” at least 100,000 years before anybody else on the planet was “fully human”. Ooh, and no Ice Ages to screw around with, all that sabre tooth tiger danger, and glaciers and mammoths and freezing to death…

    So by all means, please do take great satisfaction in Great Zimbabwe, or whatever that pile of rocks is called. No, you can’t claim the Pyramids… Yes, technically the Pyramids are in Africa, but they’re in the NORTHERN part of Africa that has, for at least 10,000 years, been infested with these Sapiens-Neanderthal half-breeds, and said pyramids were BUILT by those half-breeds. Same with Carthage. And likewise ALL of the great ancient civilisations, including Mesopotamia, Greece, China, India, the Aztec, Mayan, and Inca.

    Strangely, it wasn’t until Homo sapiens sapiens got a little bit o’ dat ugly Neanderthal DNA mixed in, that great civilizations started popping up damn near everywhere. Everywhere EXCEPT Subsaharan Africa, hmmmm… It’s even odd how late IRON SMELTING came to Africa, relative to other places. Just another inexplicable mystery (not a mystery… Half-breeds showed them how). And even once the Iron Age finally got rolling in Africa, they never did mechanize it. Everywhere else in the world, iron smelters got tired of operating the bellows by hand, and, depending on where they were, (everywhere except subsaharan Africa), they rigged up water wheels, or draft animals, to operate the bellows. Even in cold places like Northern Europe where pumping a bellows might be invigorating manly work that kept you from freezing. Even under a cold gray sky those lazy Neanderthal chromosomes caused the half-breeds to use FALLING WATER or some DUMB OX walking in circles all day, to make those bellows blow air for the smithy. Everywhere except in SUBSAHARAN “racially pure” Africa, where the only thing hotter than standing in the equatorial sun, is standing in the equatorial sun next to a blazing charcoal fire with a gol-durned bellows handle in your hand. Oh, you you don’t just hold the handle. We’re talking major aerobic exercise, heart rate up around 160.

    That’s precisely the sort of thing that I’d be looking to mechanize. But then, I’m part Neanderthal, so it must be a stupid idea…

    • Yes, I agree with you. The choice of wordings or sequences of wordings in the previous or parent article, are simply put, “not good.” ( for lack of other words at this moment). Yes, again. i agree with you and some of their find
      ings, but we are all human.

    • I hope u do understand that articles are written by non scientific folks who want other non scientific folks to read them. As for the heading – yes a cheap attempt to gather readers. The article talks about how interbreeding between subspecies has had an effect on the diversity found in modern human DNA, thats it, it does not speak about superiority. Chill

    • The Pyramids were built by Africans, period. Math, started in Africa, so did science. The article clearly states that “Cave Men” had challenges with speech and even reproducing.

      So, now that white people know due to proof that they are not smarter than blacks, even though many of them were fed that crap some want to change it up and say, “Oh it’s because Africans were mixed that some are better” like the Egyptians?! 😆
      Ok, keep your denial but as for the many blacks people it is exactly what we have always believed. Genetically blacks are superior.

  3. Interesting article. I’m curious what was the reason ancient “human” DNA wasn’t included in the study? Such as pre Neanderthal and Human mingling comparisons, and pre mingling and contemporary humans. And forgive my unfamiliarity with DNA analysis, but would that facilitate interpretations and act as a sort of control?

  4. I am so excited by this study and hope to received more information as it is discovered. Actually, I never believed in the Adam and Eve theory or that we all evolved from one race. My dad and I and cousin all have what I have referred to as a Neanderthal forehead. I will not be surprise if you do not discover that some of our specifies were dropped off here from some other galaxy. It’s possible!, thank you for your work.

  5. This article is a joke to say the least, but I understand it. Now for Bret Selph, though I concur with your comment partially, I have to also let you know that much of those inventions you speak, did not all come about when folks began to mix(albinos(albus aka white/ darker melaninated ones). Pyramids were being built long before the albinos came back in the mother land. Or any other part of the world for that.

    • Ricardo,

      My snarky tone was elicited by the snarky thesis of the article, which was that other modern humans -everywhere but in subsaharan Africa- are somehow deficient. By virtue of ancestors mating with other HUMAN subspecies, non-African people are not QUITE and not FULLY human: non-African modern humans are (by implication) impure, lesser, incomplete, mongrel, less evolved, less advanced.

      While my own tone may have been unfortunate, it’s important that this and similar websites not devolve into the racist name calling and race-based dehumanization that have marred our collective history as a species. Dehumanization, ESPECIALLY on the basis of race, needs to be called out (but perhaps not in the way i did). Having ancestors who were abused and dehumanized does not give anyone license to repeat the error: if you ACT racist, THINK racist, TALK racist… you’re a racist, no matter the color of your skin. Correct your thinking!

      As for the dating of the Pyramids and other advanced ancient cultures on the African shores of the Mediterranean, note that the Pyramids of Giza were constructed c. 2560–2540 BC. Some less impressive structures indicative of advanced Egyptian civilization are somewhat older, but not greatly so. By contrast, the “invasion” (if you want to call it that) of the northern shores of Africa by “partly Neanderthal” Neolithic Semitic peoples originating in the Levant, began at least 10,000 years BC. While it is plausible that these encroaching Semitic people interbred to some extent with “black Africans”, a small infusion of “pure Homo sapiens sapiens” does not change the fact that their predominant ancestry is still Semitic, i.e., they still carry Neanderthal genes, regardless of a possible tidbit of dilution along the way. I take no position as to whether such interbreeding took place, partly because I don’t really care, and mostly because it’s hard to be sure. The skin color and general appearance of people shown in ancient hieroglyphics is a very good match for modern Egyptians, and THEY carry Neanderthal genes. The ancient Egyptians built the Pyramids. Did they have some recent subsaharan African heritage? Quite possibly. Did they have Neanderthal heritage? Quite definitely.

      So while a trickle of subsaharan African “blood” MAY have run in veins of the earliest Pharaohs, (and certainly in the veins of LATER Pharaohs once Nubia was incorporated into Egypt), Neanderthal blood was CERTAINLY there from the beginning. So much for “racial purity”, folks! The sooner we wrap our minds around the fact that the ancestry of all people –and all living things– goes all the way back to the first living cell, that ancestry and descent is a richly braided rope that spans billions of years, then we will know that we are ALL related, that we are ALL “mongrels” by one definition or another. The sooner we accept THAT, the sooner we can just BE what we really are: human. Brothers, sisters, cousins ALL.

  6. The title of this article is so racist. I’m African, black, but probably with some San people DNA. But to state that some humans are 100% human, thus implying that some are not, is racist.
    And that word “pure” is so dangerous and in history the cause of so many a human tragedy.

    Pure is not always perfect or desirable. Pure has it shortcomings. Think of metals. Why did people come up with bronze? Hybrids have proven to be the desirable state of things. Whether in metallurgy, chemistry, etc.

    Who knows, if we bring a Neandertal to lifé today and introduce mathematics to them, they might have highly superior mathematical computing abilities than us. Who says their brains weren’t fully developed. Mixing between them and “us” could have benefitted the brain to a large degree.

    Can anyone imagine what the result of merging the brain of a human and a dolphin will result into? Or a human and a’n elephant? Or a human and a bird? We might invent hitherto unthought of technologies. We might be able to solve hitherto unsolved mysteries. We might be able to see 5 dimensionally. We might be able to understand what we have been failing to understand hitherto.

  7. The earliest Egyptians were black please stop this. Black people were the first ones to build those pyramids in Egypt and all over the world. We were EVERYWHERE. You are being a racist by minimizimg our value and contribution to humanity with your convenient white washed history. There are sculptures that clearly resembled black features in Egypt. White folks always trying to steal the credit, thats why they make movies like Queen of Sheba with a white actor. Black people were there whether you like it or not! Carthage? Black people were there too. You ever seen the coin from there that clearly has a black man on it? He obviously must have been Hannibal, or someone with the highest rank. But that would inconvenience white supremacy right? Pathetic. I was just watching a documentary TV series on the Roman Empire… all white actors.. talking about white people… then they show an old painting of a bunch of Romans.. and i see 6 black people all over the picture! And they dam sure werent slaves with the way they were dressed and their postures in the pictures! And the narrator didn’t even mention them. Just acted like they weren’t there. Exactly my fukin point. That’s all white historians do! Is act like we weren’t fuking there! Act like only white people discovered things and traveled to places. Black people were there for EVERYTHING! Greeks, Romans, Persians, Egypt! And white people from Northern and Western Europe really need to stop claiming Mediterranean history. You guys aren’t the same people. Nobody is buying your white washed history because you have never removed your biasness, acknowledged the racism of past historians, and look for alternate facts. SMH

    • Wrong! The just did DNA tests of 20 ancient mumies the pyramid age, and it was of Euro-Middle Eastern descent. They have also concluded that sub-saharan, Central and South Africans went on to mix with Homo-erectus…a species with a third less crainal capacity.

  8. The bolded paragraph that heads this article is as uninformed as it is inflammatory. Plenty of genetic evidence now attests to the fact that sub-Saharan African human populations are hybridized as well, with an as-yet ‘undiscovered’ (nothing dug up yet) species of archaic human. Probably an offshoot or descendant of Heidelbergensis, like Neanderthals and Denisovans were.

    This is neither a strike for nor against Black Africans, any more than Neanderthal/Denisovan hybridization is against the rest of humanity. It just is. Personally, I think everybody is enhanced by it.

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